What is a watershed?

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How many high tides are there per day?

While some places have one high tide and one low tide per day, most coastal locations have two high tides and two low tides a day. These highs and lows typically aren’t equal. This is why, in most places, using the phrase “high tide” might be unclear. There’s actually high tide and higher high tide (and low and lower low tide).

If the Earth were a perfect sphere without large continents, and if the earth-moon-sun system were in perfect alignment, every place would get two equal high and low tides every day. However, the alignment of the moon and sun relative to Earth, the presence of the continents, regional geography, and features on the seafloor, among other factors, make tidal patterns more complex.

Around the world, there are three basic tidal patterns: semidiurnal, mixed, and diurnal. When both high tides are about equal to each other, and the low tides are also roughly equal, the pattern is called a semidiurnal tide. If the two highs and lows differ substantially, the pattern is called a mixed tide. Where there’s only one high and one low tide a day, it’s called a diurnal tide. One location can experience different tide patterns throughout the month.

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What do leeward and windward mean?

An island’s windward side faces the prevailing, or trade, winds, whereas the island’s leeward side faces away from the wind, sheltered from prevailing winds by hills and mountains. As trade winds blow across the ocean, they pick up moist air from the water.

Once the damp air makes landfall on an island, it ascends hills and mountains to form condensation, clouds, and precipitation. As the air moves to the other side of the island, it warms up and dries out. Thus, an island’s windward side is wetter and more verdant than its drier leeward side. Meteorologists call this contrast the orographic effect.

As an example, the Hawaiian Islands have damp windward sides and drier leeward sides most of the time as a result of the Pacific Ocean’s northeasterly trade winds. Windward locations are generally lush and green. Famously sunny beaches like Oahu’s Waikiki and Maui’s Wailea are found on the islands’ more sheltered leeward sides. Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link �����2 �����2 проба2 proba2 Around the world, there are three basic tidal throughout the month. LINK3 Threads3

Do We Still Need Lighthouses?

Lighthouses and beacons are towers with bright lights and fog horns located at important or dangerous locations. They can be found on rocky cliffs or sandy shoals on land, on wave-swept reefs in the sea, and at entrances to harbors and bays. They serve to warn mariners of dangerous shallows and perilous rocky coasts, and they help guide vessels safely into and out of harbors. The messages of these long-trusted aids to navigation are simple: either STAY AWAY, DANGER, BEWARE! or COME THIS WAY!

While lighthouses still guide seafarers, nowadays, the Global Positioning System (GPS), NOAA’s nautical charts, lighted navigational aids, buoys, radar beacons, and other aids to navigation effectively warn mariners of dangerous areas and guide them to safe harbors. Some 48,000 federal buoys, beacons, and electronic aids of the marine transportation system mark more than 25,000 miles of waterways, harbor channels, and inland, intracoastal and coastal waterways, and serve more than 300 ports. Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link ����� ����� проба proba This is why, in most placesLINK1 more complex. LINK1 Threads1

What causes seasickness?

One of the least pleasant aspects of going to sea is the possibility of getting seasick. An individual’s susceptibility to seasickness is highly variable. If you’ve ever had motion sickness when traveling by car, plane, or amusement park ride, you may be more susceptible to seasickness while aboard a vessel.

Seasickness is a result of a conflict in the inner ear, where the human balance mechanism resides, and is caused by a vessel’s erratic motion on the water. Inside the cabin of a rocking boat, for example, the inner ear detects changes in both up-and-down and side-to-side acceleration as one’s body bobs along with the boat. But, since the cabin moves with the passenger, one’s eyes register a relatively stable scene. Agitated by this perceptual incongruity, the brain responds with a cascade of stress-related hormones that can ultimately lead to nausea, vomiting, and vertigo. Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link �����1 �����1 проба1 proba1 There’s actually high tideLINK2 tide (and low and lower low tide). LINK2 Threads3

What is the intertidal zone?

Sea creatures arrange themselves vertically in the intertidal zone depending on their abilities to compete for space, avoid predators from above and below, and resist drying out. Residents of the higher intertidal zones can either close themselves up in their shells to remain moist and ward off predators, or are mobile enough to retreat to a submerged zone when the tide goes out. In the lower parts of the intertidal zone, many plants and animals attach themselves in place and are very sturdy, very flexible, or otherwise well suited to stand up to wave energy.

Larger marine life, such as seals, sea lions, and fish, find foraging for food ideal at high tide in the intertidal zone, while a large variety of shorebirds, looking for their meals, stroll hungrily over the intertidal zone at low tide.

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What is the most common form of ocean litter?

Broken bottles, plastic toys, food wrappers … during a walk along the coast one finds any of these items, and more. In all that litter, there is one item more common than any other: cigarette butts.

Cigarette butts are a pervasive, long-lasting, and a toxic form of marine debris. They primarily reach our waterways through improper disposal on beaches, rivers, and anywhere on land, transported to our coasts by runoff and stormwater. Once butts reach the beach, they may impact marine organisms and habitats. Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link ����� ����� проба proba This is why, in most placesLINK1 more complex. LINK1 Threads3

What is a tide pool?

Formed in depressions along the shoreline of rocky coasts, tide pools are filled with seawater that gets trapped as the tide recedes. While these small basins at the ocean’s edge typically range from mere inches to a few feet deep and a few feet across, they are packed with sturdy sea life such as snails, barnacles, mussels, anemones, urchins, sea stars, crustaceans, seaweed, and small fish. Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link �����1 �����1 проба1 proba1 There’s actually high tideLINK2 tide (and low and lower low tide). LINK2 Threads1

What is a sponge?

Regardless of these differences, sponges are important inhabitants of coral reef ecosystems. A diverse sponge population can affect water quality on the reef as the sponges filter water, collect bacteria, and process carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. In nutrient-depleted coral reefs, some sponge species are thought to make carbon biologically available by excreting a form of “sponge poop” that other organisms feed on, thereby fueling productivity throughout the ecosystem. In this way, sponges protect the reef against extreme fluctuations in nutrient density, temperature, and light, benefiting the survival of other reef organisms.

A sponge’s skeletal type adapts well to its particular habitat, allowing it to live on hard, rocky surfaces or soft sediments such as sand and mud. Some sponges even attach themselves to floating debris! Rarely are they found completely free-floating. Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link �����2 �����2 проба2 proba2 Around the world, there are three basic tidal throughout the month. LINK3 LINK1 Threads3

What is the carbon cycle?

Carbon is the foundation of all life on Earth, required to form complex molecules like proteins and DNA. This element is also found in our atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon helps to regulate the Earth’s temperature, makes all life possible, is a key ingredient in the food that sustains us, and provides a major source of the energy to fuel our global economy.

The carbon cycle describes the process in which carbon atoms continually travel from the atmosphere to the Earth and then back into the atmosphere. Since our planet and its atmosphere form a closed environment, the amount of carbon in this system does not change. Where the carbon is located — in the atmosphere or on Earth — is constantly in flux. Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link Edited link ����� ����� проба proba This is why, in most placesLINK1 more complex. LINK2 Threads1